Blues - is a type of African-American secular, mostly vocal, music. It was born at the end of the 19th century in the African American community of the southeastern United States, among immigrants from the Cotton Belt plantations. For the first time, the term was used by George Coleman in the one-act farce “Blue Devils” (1798). Since then, in literary works the phrase English. “Blue Devils” (an English idiom corresponding to the Russian idiom “Delirium tremens”) is often used to describe depressed mood.
The blues consisted of such manifestations as a “work song” (Eng. Work song), holler (Eng. Field holler; rhythmic cries accompanying work in the field), cries in the rituals of African religious cults - ring shout (Eng. Ring shout ), spirituals (Christian chants), chant (English chant) and ballads (short poetic stories).
Among the famous artists of this time can be called Charley Patton (Charley Patton), John Slipy Istiza (John Sleepy Estes), Big Bill Brunzy (Big Bill Broonzy). Most often, the bluesmen took expressive nicknames, such as the names already mentioned: “Blind Lemon” Jefferson, “Sonya” Istiz, “Big Bill” Brunzi, etc.
Under the influence of blues, the so-called “blues” trend arose in poetry (L. Hughes, J. Kerouac), literature (J. Baldwin, S. Fitzgerald), theater (J. O’Neill, T. Williams) and other forms of art.
Like jazz, rock and roll, heavy metal, hip hop, reggae, country and pop music, the blues was accused of being “the music of the devil” and of inciting violence and other deviant behavior. At the beginning of the 20th century, listening to the blues was considered shameful, especially since the white audience began to listen to the blues only during the 1920s.