Sonata (Italian: sonare- to sound) is a genre of instrumental music, as well as a musical form called a sonata form. Composed for chamber composition of instruments and piano. Usually a solo or duet. A number of instrumental pieces written for many orchestral compositions are usually called not a sonata, but a big concert (Italian: concerto grosso). Also, the word “sonata” can be called a collection of plays in one piece, because some of these plays are written in sonata form.
The name "sonata" comes from the Italian verb "sonare", which translates as "sound." The sonata consists of three parts. The classical (most general) scheme of a sonata is as follows: the first part is usually quick, written in the form of a sonata allegro, that is, with a certain type of development of musical material and correlation of themes; the second, on the contrary, is sustained at a slow pace; it is replaced by the final part (end), which is characterized by a fast pace. However, there are many exceptions to this rule: for example, out of ten Scriabin's sonatas, not one is three-part.
It differs from the sonata suite by the close interconnection of parts, which, however, are built on the principle of contrast (conflict), like the musical material of sonata allegro.
The sonata form is found not only in sonatas for piano or for piano and violin (viola, cello or double bass), but also in a trio for piano, violin and cello. The sonata form, in addition to instrumental solos, duets and trios, is also found in quartets, quintets, sextets, septets, octets, nonets and decets for string instruments, for piano with string instruments, for string instruments with wind instruments. All these works belong to the field of chamber music. The sonata is also used in concerts for solo instrument with orchestra, as well as in symphonies. Johan Kunau (first half of the 18th century) introduced a poetic program element into the sonatas. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Johannes Brahms were significantly developed by a sonata duet for solo instrument (violin, cello, clarinet, horn) and piano.